Endurance athletes experience in-creased need for protein (1-4). Mostpeople are surprised to learn that studiesactually show endurance athletes haveeven higher protein requirements thanmost strength athletes (1,2). This is dueto the fact that the amino acids (the build-ing blocks of protein) are used as fuelduring endurance training (1,5). I sug-gest that you consume at least one gramof complete protein per pound ofbodyweight—1.5 grams would be evenbetter—from chicken, fish, turkey or eggwhites each day with at least another .25or .5 gram of additional protein per poundof bodyweight coming from incompletevegetable sources. This leads directly toour “Hi-Protein Powder.”
Calorie for calo-rie, this protein powder is the highest qual-ity protein food available anywhere. Itcontains exactly the balance of amino ac-ids your body needs to build proteins, in-cluding muscle, red blood cells and theenergy producing systems mentioned.Now we can turn our attention to fuelfor optimum endurance performance. Wehave developed three high-energy supple-ments to help meet the needs of seriousendurance athletes: Pro-Carb Powder,CapTri and the Parrillo Supplement Bar.Carbohydrate is the body’s preferredenergy source (6,7) and Pro-Carb is theworld’s most sophisticated carbohydratepowder. The carbohydrate is supplied asmaltodextrin, a complex carbohydratefrom corn. Maltodextrin has been foundto be the ideal carbohydrate source forreplenishing glycogen reserves. It is di-gested and absorbed more rapidly thanconventional carbs from food, but not sofast that it causes an over-release of in-sulin and subsequent hypoglycemia.Maltodextrin provides a much moreuniform energy level than do simplesugars. Refer to our recent seriesabout carbohydrates and athleticperformance for more detailedinformation about Pro-Carb.CapTri is a special kind offat known as a medium chain triglyceride(8-10).
CapTri provides twice the energydensity of protein and carbohydrate (8.3calories per gram for CapTri versus 4calories per gram for carbs and protein)and is absorbed into the bloodstream asrapidly as glucose (8-10). CapTri is pref-erentially used as fuel for energy, insteadof being stored as fat by the body (9). Asan added benefit, CapTri has a ther-mogenic effect, which means that it isconverted to energy very rapidly (9).CapTri is an extremely concentratedsource of calories which are rapidly ab-sorbed and metabolized for energy by thehuman body. We think of CapTri as hu-man jet fuel. Start with 1/2 tablespoon atevery meal. After a few days, increase toone tablespoon with each meal. Duringhard training, many athletes go as high astwo or three tablespoons per meal—alevel they have found to be beneficial.Continue to use CapTri up to and duringyour endurance competition. You cannotstore the energy from CapTri, so you needto use it at each meal.Another key point which many peopledon’t understand is that some of the en-ergy from CapTri is converted in the liverto ketone bodies, which are used as fuelby the muscles (9,11). The efficiency ofutilization of ketones as fuel substrates byperipheral tissues improves as the bodyadapts to CapTri. In other words, yourbody gets better at using CapTri as it getsused to it.
Thus, using it consistently willallow you to get more out of it when youreally need it. Also, these same ketonebodies produced by CapTri help preventthe use of amino acids as fuel (11). thatway, your aminos get used as protein in-stead of being burned as energy. CapTrialso decreases catabolism of skeletalmuscle protein (9,11), This is why CapTriis effective in reducing the loss of leanbody mass commonly experienced by en-durance athletes.The Parrillo Supplement Bar is the en-durance athlete’s dream. It is a combina-tion of everything — protein, carbs andCapTri — in just the right ratio for opti-mum energy production. Energy-dense,ready to eat and great tasting. The Bar isvery popular with cyclists and hikers and bodybuilders eat them between meals forextra calories.To sum up, Parrillo Performance hasdeveloped a unique and powerful line ofnutritional supplements for endurance ath-letes and anyone who wants more energy,strength and stamina. I suggest you startwith the Liver-Amino Formula, since itprovides protein and heme iron — theprecise nutrients your body needs to buildmuscle, red blood cells and energy pro-ducing systems. Where to go from thereis a highly individual matter. If you’renot getting enough protein from conven-tional sources, the Hi-Protein Powder isprobably the next thing to add.
If youneed more calories, go with Pro-Carb,CapTri or the Supplement Bar. TheSupplement Bar is a nice choice becauseyou get protein, carbs and CapTri all inone. If you’re training on the edge andSupplementation For Ultimate Endurance Performance, Part IIwant to explore the limits of your poten-tial, add in Max Endurance Formula andMuscle Amino. Feel free to call or writeand we’ll help you work out your indi-vidualized program.In general, I suggest you begin usingendurance supplements when traininghard and definitely for at least three to sixweeks before your event to build up yournutrient level reserves. This is especiallytrue for Liver-Amino, since it takes aboutsix weeks to build red blood cells. Weget better results if the nutrition and supple-ments regimen is followed daily, not justaround competition time. Consistency anddedication make the difference betweenchampions and recreational athletes, andthat applies to nutrition and supplementa-tion as well as to training.P.S. Don’t forget your Essential Vita-min Formula and Mineral-Electrolyte For-mula, both of which can be doubled whenin hard training.
1. Hickson JF and Wolinsky I. Hu-man protein intake and metabolism in ex-ercise and sports. Nutrition in Exerciseand Sport, Hickson JF and Wolinsky I,Eds. p. 5-36. CRC Press, 1989.
2. Houck J an Slavin J. Protein nu-trition for the athlete. Sports Nutrition forthe 90s, Berning JR and Steen SN, Eds.p 1-14. Aspen Publishers, 1991.
3. Lemon PWR. Influence of di-etary protein and total energy intake onstrength improvement. Sports Sci. Exch.2, 1989.
4. Lemon PWR. Protein and AminoAcid Needs of the Strength Athlete. J.Sports Nutr. 1: 127-145, 1991.
5. Friedman JE and Lemon PWR.Effect of chronic endurance exercise onretention of dietary protein. Int. J. SportsMed. 10: 118-123, 1989.
6. Miller GD and Massaro EJ. Car-bohydrate in ultra-endurance perfor-mance. Nutrition in Exercise and Sport,Hickson JF and Wolinsky I, Eds. p. 51-62. CRC Press, 1989.
7. Pate TD and Brunn JC. Funda-mentals of carbohydrate metabolism.Nutrition in Exercise and Sport, HicksonJF and Wolinsky I, Eds. pg. 37-50. CRCPress, 1989.
8. Babayan VK. Medium chain trig-lycerides and structured lipids. Lipids 22:417-420, 1987.
9. Bach AC and Babayan VK. Me-dium chain triglycerides: an update. Am.J. Clin. Nutr. 36: 950-962, 1982.
10. Record, Kolpeck and Rapp. Longchain versus medium chain triglycerides— a review of the metabolism and clini-cal use. Nutr. Clin. Prac. 1: 129-136,1986.
11. Haymond MW, Nissen SL andMiles JM. Effects of ketone bodies onleucine and analine metabolism in normalman. Amino Acids — Metabolism andMedical Applications, Blackburn GL,Grant JP and Young VR, Eds. pg 89-95.Published by John Wright PSG Inc., 1983.